GLOSSARY


 

ANDESITE

A fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite.
Silverdale sawn bed split face

ASHLAR

Building stone that has been smooth cut, or dressed, into uniformly square or rectangular blocks.
Tufa columns with montana flagstone

ARCH

A curved masonry construction spanning an opening and supported at its sides or ends. Usually made from cut stone voussoirs, (interlocking wedge-shaped blocks) that carries downward pressure out to side walls or lateral abutments.
Balustrade

BALUSTRADE

A complete railing system consisting of a top handrail supported on balusters, or vertical rails, which sometimes rests on a bottom rail.
Basalt seat

BASALT

A dense textured (aphanitic) igneous rock of a lava flow or minor intrusion composed essentially of labradorite and pyroxene, often displaying a columnar structure. Basalt is relatively high in iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica, generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light-colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock of similar texture and origin.
Full color bluestone ledge wall

BELT COURSE

A continuous horizontal course of flat stones marking a division in the wall plane.
Wakefield

BLUESTONE

A hard argillaceous metamorphic sandstone of characteristic blue, gray and buff colors quarried in the states of New York and Pennsylvania.

BROWNSTONE

A reddish-brown sandstone whose color results from a high amount of iron oxide as interstitial material, typically used as a building material.

BRUSHED FINISH

Textured surface obtained by brushing a stone with a coarse rotary-type wire brush.
Dakota flagstone with limestone treads

BULL NOSE

Convex rounding of a stone member, such as a stair tread.
Cobblestone 1

CLADDING

The lightweight outer skin of a building that neither carries any weight nor supports the building, but which protects it from weather elements.

CLASS 2 PERMEABLE BASE

Consists of 70% 3/4" gravel, 20% plaster sand and 10% pea gravel.

CLEAVAGE PLANE

Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate.

CLEAVAGE

The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting.
Untitled2

COPING

A flat stone used as a cap on a freestanding wall, usually to protect the wall from weather.
Sebastian thin veneer 4

CORTILE

The term for an internal courtyard, usually open to the air, surrounded by arcades to blur the distinction between interior and exterior.

COURSED VENEER

A wall treatment achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another.
Bark1

CURBING

Slabs and blocks of stone bordering streets, walks, etc.
Sage flagstone 1 to 2a

CUTTING STOCK

a term used to describe slabs of varying size, finish, and thickness which are used in fabrication treads, risers, copings, borders, sills, stools, hearths, mantels, and other special purpose stones.
Black mexican cobbles

EXPOSED AGGREGATE

Phrase applied to the larger pieces of stone aggregate purposefully exposed for their color and texture in a cast slab.
Recycled 3 8 minus

FINES

The powder, dust, silt-size, & sand-size material resulting from processing crushed rock.

FINISHES

Surface treatments. The surface of stones may be finished in a number of different ways. In general, smooth surfaces tend to emphasize color and veining, while rough finishes tend to subdue the veins and markings. Commonly available as:
  • Bush-hammered - A pounding action that develops a textured surface
  • Flamed - A rough finish that is developed through intense heat
  • Smooth - machine finished by saw, grinder or planer
  • Honed - dull sheen, without reflections
  • Polished - mirror gloss with sharp reflections, the smoothest finish available, resulting in a high luster (gloss) appearance
  • Machine Tooled - 4-cut, 6-cut, chiseled, axed, pointed, etc.
  • Chat Sawn - irregular and uneven markings
  • Split Face - concave-convex
  • Rock Face - convex
  • Thermal - planed surface with flame finish applied by mechanically controlled means to create surface coarseness
  • Brushed - obtained by brushing the stone with a coarse rotary-type wire brush
Montana flagstone 2

FLAGSTONE

Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc.; generally fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite or slate although other stones may be used.

GAUGED OR GAUGING

A grinding process that results in the uniform thickness of all pieces of material to be used together.
GRANITE - A fine to coarse-grained, igneous rock form
Oxford green granite

GRANITE

A fine to coarse-grained, igneous rock formed by volcanic action and consisting of quartz, feldspar, mica, and accessory minerals. Granite-type rocks include those of similar texture and origin.

HAND CUT RANDOM RECTANGULAR ASHLAR

A pattern where all the stone is hand cut into squares and rectangles, and where all the joints are fairly consistent. Similar to sawed-bed ashlar in appearance.

HAND DRESSED

(also known as ROCK FACED ASHLAR) - A finish given to both veneer stone and cutting stock, created by establishing a straight line back from the irregular face of the stone. Proper tools are then used to cut along the line leaving a straight arras and the intended rustic finish on the face.
Dakota 3

HEARTH STONE

Originally the large single stone or stones used for the floor of a fireplace; now most commonly used to describe the stone in front of the fire chamber and in many cases extending on either or both sides of the front of the fire chamber.

LEED RATING SYSTEMS

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System™ is a third-party certification program and the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings.  LEED provides building owners and operators with the tools they need to have an immediate and measureable impact on their buildings’ performance
Keystone

KEYSTONE

the last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch, regarded as binding the whole.
Charcoal brown limestone wallrock

LIMESTONE

A sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of limestone used as dimensional stone are usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining or bedding direction. Limestones that contain not more than five percent magnesium carbonate may be termed calcite limestone, as distinguished from those containing between five and forty percent magnesium carbonate, and from those that contain in excess of forty percent as the mineral dolomite. Recrystallized limestones and compact, dense, relatively pure microcrystalline varieties that are capable of taking a polish are known as marbles.
Sunrise wall rock 3

LINTEL

A stone beam or horizontal member spanning the top of an opening, such as a doorway or window, and supporting the wall above it.
Marble

MARBLE

A metamorphic limestone in a more or less crystalline state capable of taking a high polish. Occurs in a wide range of colors and variations.
Onyx

ONYX

A variety of quartz in crystalline calcium carbonate form. It is
characterized by a structure of parallel bands, each differing in color or in
the degree of translucency. Onyx is considered to be a marble because it
can take a polish.

PARQUETRY

A flat inlay of stone floors in closely fitted geometrical or other patterns, often including two or more colors or materials.

PORPHYRY

An igneous rock in which relatively large and conspicuous crystals (phenocrysts) are set in a matrix of finer crystals.
Quartzite

QUARTZITE

A compact granular rock composed of quartz crystals, usually so firmly cemented as to make the mass homogeneous. The stone is generally quarried in stratified layers, the surfaces of which are unusually smooth. Its crushing and tensile strengths are extremely high. The color range is wide.
Charcoal brown limestone veneer

QUOINS

Stones at the external corner or edge of a wall emphasized by size, projection, rustication, or by a different finish.

RIPRAP

Irregularly shaped stones used for facing bridge abutments and fills; stones thrown together without order to form a foundation or sustaining walls.

RISE

Refers to the heights of stone, generally in veneer; the vertical dimension between two successive steps.

ROCK (PITCH) FACE

Similar to split face, except that the face of the stone is inclined to a given line and plane, producing a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face; stones laid up in a masonry wall with natural faces as received from the quarry, or dressed to resemble natural stone.
SAND SAWN FINISH - Stone surface 

SAWED EDGE

A clean cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw or wire saw.

SAWED FACE

A finish obtained from the particular process employed to produce building stone. Varies in texture from smooth to rough and is coincident with the type of materials used in sawing; characterized as diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn or shot sawn.

SAND SAWN FINISH

Stone surface left as it comes from a gang saw; moderately smooth, granular surface varying with the texture and grade of stone.
Bluestone sill

SILL

A flat stone used under windows, doors and other masonry openings.
Slate

SLATE

A very fine-grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary rock shale. Characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage entirely independent of original bedding, by which cleavage the rock may be split easily into relatively thin slabs.

SMOOTH FINISH

The surface texture produced by planer machines plus the removal of objectionable tool marks; also known as smooth planar finish or smooth machine finish.
Peach flagstone pool coping with snapped edges

SNAPPED EDGE, QUARRY CUT or BROKEN EDGE

Generally refers to a natural breaking of a stone either by hand or machine. The break should be at right angles to the top and bottom surface.

SOFFIT

The finished underside of a lintel, arch, or portico.

SPALL

A stone fragment that has split or broken off the face of a stone, either by the force of a blow or by weathering. Sizes may vary from chip size to one and two man stones. Spalls are primarily used for taking up large voids in rough rubble or mosaic patterns.

SPLIT FACE (SAWED BED)

Usually sawed on the stone bed and split by hand or machine so that the face of the stone exhibits the natural quarry texture.

TOLERANCE

Dimensional allowance made for the inability of men and machines to fabricate a product of exact dimensions.
Sequoia flagstone

TREAD

A flat stone used as the top walking surface on a step.
Canyon creek 2

VENEER STONE

Any stone used as a decorative facing material which is not meant to be load bearing.

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